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El Hacker Mas Famoso de Argentina




JULIO CESAR ARDITA ('EL GRITON')





Julio Cesar es considerado el hacker más famoso de Argentina. Nació en Río Gallegos, el 28 de marzo del 74; en la primaria tuvo el honor de ser abanderado. Curso la secundaria en un pequeño colegio del barrio porteño de Caballito, el Dámaso Centeno, En donde por primera vez utilizo una computadora. En quinto año, junto con dos compañeros ayudaron a informatizar el sistema de notas y facturación del colegio en el cual estudiaba. Hijo de Julio Rafael Ardita, un teniente coronel retirado del Ejercito Argentino, y de la docente Susana Colombo, el joven creció viajando por todo el país hasta terminar, a los 14, en la Capital Federal. Por supuesto, todavía no conocía de computadoras conectadas con teléfonos y, mucho menos, de abogados, jueces y periodistas que lo buscaran sin suerte para que contara su... ¿travesura? Como Ardita, son miles los jóvenes de la aldea global que se dedican a violar códigos se cretos, vulnerar accesos restringidos y burlar herméticos vallados en redes telemáticas por el simple desafío de derribar murallas de seguridad informática.

El Día de los Inocentes de 1995, (28 de diciembre), la casa de este joven fue allanada por la justicia argentina, luego de que el Gobierno de Estados Unidos alertara sobre reiteradas intrusiones a varias de sus redes informáticas de Defensa, entre ellas la del Pentágono.

Utilizando las líneas 0800 de uso gratuito de Telecom Ardita logró acceder al sistema de redes de la Universidad de Harvard y desde allí, a información sobre el diseño de radares y aviones militares.

El fiscal de la causa le dijo a periodistas que la soberbia de Ardita lo llevó a admitir todos y cada uno de los hechos que se le imputaban.

Lo sentenció un tribunal oral en 1996, por "fraude telefónico", estimado por la empresa Telecom en cincuenta pesos.

Este fue el primer juicio de estas características en Argentina. En 1995, en Argentina, el acceso a la red Internet -que hoy es muy común-, era un privilegio, sólo para muy pocos.

Por eso, detallar en un juzgado qué era la red, cómo consiguió concretar a través de Internet, comunicaciones internacionales desde su casa sin pagar un solo centavo, fue una tarea dura para Ardita, que necesitó gráficos para explicar cómo ingresó a la red interna de computadoras de Telconet (de Telecom) a través de una línea 0800.

Sin embargo, para acceder a esta red es necesario poseer una clave secreta de catorce dígitos. Cada usuario legítimo tiene una, por eso fue que al principio la investigación apuntó que algún contacto dentro de la empresa telefónica le hubiera facilitado el código.

Pero para Ardita las cosas habías sido más simples: "Cuando uno establece la conexión Telconet y presiona simultáneamente las teclas "ctrl.-p" y luego tipea "stat", el sistema da mucha información". La denominación STAT es tomada por el sistema informático como "status" y pone en pantalla la información de los últimos accesos de personal validado por el sistema, con sus nombres de usuario y sus claves secretas. Cuando sorteó la primera valla de seguridad, descubrió la red de computadoras que Telecom tenía conectada a Internet. Sólo que para ingresar era necesario ser usuario legal, por lo tanto explicó que: "Comencé entonces a probar diferentes nombres de personas: María, Julio, etc. Pero recién con el nombre Carlos obtuve respuesta". Así, a través del sistema de prueba y error navegó gratis por Internet, y ahí comenzaron sus problemas con la ley norteamericana, ya que desde allí ingresó al sistema de la Universidad de Harvard, que a su vez le sirvió de trampolín para acceder a los de la Marina de los EE.UU., y del laboratorio de Propulsión Nuclear de la NASA, entre otros.

En esa época, para los EE. UU. las intrusiones informáticas ya eran delitos graves. Así, un tribunal condenó a Ardita a tres años bajo libertad condicional y a pagar una multa de cinco mil dólares por haber vulnerado el sistema informático de la Marina.

En el juicio de Boston, realizado allí porque es donde se encuentra instalada la Universidad de Harvard, lo condenaron puntualmente por "posesión fraudulenta de claves de seguridad, nombres de abonados legítimos, códigos y otros permisos de acceso, por actividad fraudulenta y destructiva con computadoras y por interceptación ilegal de comunicaciones".

Ardita obtuvo información sobre tecnología espacial y aérea, y entró a sistemas de universidades donde se hacían investigaciones sobre satélites y radiación.

El agente especial del FBI Black, vino a Argentina para capacitar a la Policía Federal y le dijo a un periodista: "El hacker argentino operaba desde 4 ó 5 cuentas distintas (números de usuario) que pertenecían a la universidad de Harvard. Cambiaba de una a otra y por eso fue difícil detectarlo".

No hubo pruebas de que Ardita haya intentado lucrar con la información o hacer algún tipo de daño.

Por eso fue condenado a cumplir con un servicio social: dar clases de computación en instituciones públicas y pagar una multa de 5.000 dólares.

Hoy en día, Julio Cesar Ardita paga religiosamente sus facturas telefónicas. Además, se levanta temprano por las mañanas y camina hasta la zona de Tribunales. Allí está Cybsec S.A., la exitosa empresa de seguridad informática que ahora el ex ciberpirata administra junto a su socio. Sus embrollos judiciales le permitieron entablar múltiples contactos en la Argentina y en el exterior: "La metamorfosis de hacker romántico a yuppie experto en seguridad informática suele ser habitual", sostienen los conocedores del rubro. En tanto, en Buenos Aires, su caso despertó mucha expectativa: juristas y entendidos en computación estarán pendientes de la resolución de su juicio. Seguramente, "el Gritón" hablará en un tono más bajo, sin anonimato ni demasiadas huellas de aquellos tiempos de rebeldía juvenil, cuando enfrentaba, de puro apasionado, los desafíos de la Informática.




FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
FRIDAY, MARCH 29, 1996

CRM
(202) 616-2771
TDD (202) 514-1888


FEDERAL CYBERSLEUTHERS ARMED WITH FIRST EVER COMPUTER WIRERTAP ORDER NET INTERNATIONAL HACKER CHARGED WITH ILLEGALLY ENTERING HARVARD AND U.S MILITARY COMPUTERS


WASHINGTON, D.C. -- The first use of a court-ordered wiretap on a computer network led today to charges against an Argentine man accused of breaking into Harvard University's computers which he used as a staging point to crack into numerous computer sites including several belonging to the Department of Defense and NASA.

The wiretap, on the computer of Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences during the last two months of 1995, resulted in the filing of a criminal complaint against 21-year-old Julio Cesar Ardita of Buenos Aires. An arrest warrant has been issued for Ardita.

Attorney General Janet Reno and United States Attorney Donald K. Stern of the District of Massachusetts said a wiretap order, typically employed to monitor telephone conversations of organized crime and drug suspects, was used to trace and identify the illegal intruder while preserving the confidentiality of legitimate communications.

The Attorney General said Ardita was believed to have illegally entered computer systems at additional U.S. universities, including Cal Tech, the University of Massachusetts, and Northeastern University, and sites in other countries such as Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Chile and Brazil.

She said Ardita obtained access to computer systems containing important and sensitive information in government research files on satellites, radiation and energy related engineering. Ardita was not accused of obtaining classified information related to the national security.

The intruder was identified by using a specially configured monitoring computer that conducted the complex searches needed to isolate his activities. Law enforcement agencies have done electronic surveillance on computer systems in the past with the consent of the users. Court authorization was deemed necessary in this case because the Harvard computer system does not post a banner informing users who log onto the system that their communications might be monitored.

"This is an example of how the Fourth Amendment and a court order can be used to protect rights while adapting to modern technology," said Attorney General Reno. "This is doing it the right way," she said. "We are using a traditional court order and new technology to defeat a criminal, while protecting individual rights and Constitutional principles that are important to all Americans."

According to the complaint, the international hacker invaded the Harvard computer through a broadly accessible modem bank and the Internet, and there stole a series of accounts and passwords.

Using these stolen accounts as his base, Ardita gained unauthorized access to computers at various U.S. military sites across the country, including the Navy Research Laboratory, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Ames Research Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Naval Command Control and Ocean Surveillance Center. He also tried repeatedly but unsuccessfully to enter the Army Research Laboratory computer system.

On December 28, 1995, Ardita's computer files and equipment were seized at his home in Buenos Aires by authorities acting on information supplied by Telecom Argentina which U.S. authorities had contacted for assistance in tracking the intruder.

"This is a case of cyber-sleuthing, a glimpse of what computer crime fighting will look like in the coming years," said U.S. Attorney Donald K. Stern. "We have made enormous strides in developing the investigative tools to track down individuals who misuse these vital computer networks."

The investigation consisted of three phases: First, in late August, 1995, the Naval Command and Control Ocean Surveillance Center detected an intrusion into its computer network, which contains sensitive, but not classified, Navy research files on such things as aircraft design, radar technology and satellite engineering. The intruder was discovered to have broken into other computer networks, as well, from the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences (FAS Harvard) host computer. Initially, it was impossible to identify the intruder or where he was coming from. The FAS Harvard computer is widely accessible to approximately 16,500 account holders through modems and through the Internet, and the intruder was stealing and then using many different Harvard account holders' passwords.

However, according to the government's complaint, analysis of the intruder's electronic habits revealed certain patterns. The Naval Criminal Investigative Service did a painstaking analysis of the intruder's activities. Investigators were able to identify words and phrases used by the intruder not commonly used in the same manner by legitimate users of Harvard's network. The patterns included signature programs he used to intercept passwords, pirated accounts he used as a basis for his criminal activity, and sets of overlapping computer systems he seemed to break into and work through.

"These patterns of behavior provided us with a general description of the intruder -- we knew his modus operandi, his hangouts, his patterns of computer speech, the computer tools he used for his break-ins, and his disguises," said Stern.

In the second phase of the investigation, the Naval Criminal Investigative Service and the FBI obtained court authorization from a federal judge in Boston to conduct electronic surveillance of the intruder's communications to and from the FAS Harvard host computer.

"We intercepted only those communications which fit the pattern," explained Stern. "Even when communications contained the identifying pattern of the intruder, we limited our initial examination to 80 characters around the tell-tale sign to further protect the privacy of innocent communications."

During the course of this electronic surveillance, the intruder was observed referring to himself by the moniker "griton," which is Spanish for "screamer." He also was repeatedly observed accessing the FAS Harvard host computer from four computer systems in Buenos Aires.

In the third phase of the investigation, the Department of Justice confirmed the real identity of "griton." Among other things, investigators discovered that defendant Ardita had used the name "griton" years before on a computer bulletin board. That old bulletin board had been posted publicly on the Internet by its creator, and so was accessible to investigators. Ardita advertised his own hacker bulletin board, "Scream!," in his posting and listed a telephone number at his residence where the Scream! bulletin board could be also accessed. Records in the United States and Argentina were analyzed, which further confirmed Ardita's telephone line in Argentina was being used to unlawfully access the Harvard system.

In addition to facing U.S. felony charges, Ardita is under investigation in Argentina. The two governments have been exchanging information. "We will work with our foreign counterparts to achieve justice," said the Attorney General. "International teamwork is being applied to international crimes," she said.

In the United States, the charges are: fraudulent possession of unauthorized computer passwords, user identification names, codes and other access devices; destructive activity in connection with computers; and illegal interception of electronic communications. These are contained in a criminal complaint issued by U.S. Magistrate Judge Marianne Bowler.

"This case demonstrates that the real threat to computer privacy comes from unscrupulous intruders, not government investigators," said Attorney General Reno. She complimented the agents who worked on the case for developing procedures that assured that monitoring would be focused on the intruder's unlawful activities.

This case was investigated by Naval Criminal Investigative Service and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Stephen P. Heymann, Deputy Chief of the Criminal Division of the United States Attorney's Office for the District of Massachusetts, is prosecuting the case, and supervised the electronic surveillance with the assistance of Department of Justice Attorneys Marty Stansell-Gamm of the Criminal Division's Computer Crime Unit and Janet Webb of the Electronic Surveillance Unit of the Criminal Division's Office of Enforcement Operations.

In Boston, additional information can be obtained from Joy Fallon or Anne-Marie Kent, 617-223-9445.

###

96-146



Entrevista a Ardita sobre la Conferencia DEFCON




Fuentes que usé y otras que no usé pero de donde pueden sacar algo mas de información:
http://www.monografias.com/trabajos31/delitos-informaticos/delitos-informaticos3.shtml
http://www.buscalegis.ufsc.br/arquivos/Crimen_y_castigo_en_el_ciberespacio.html
http://www.4law.co.il/ardita1.htm / http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/pr/1996/March96/146.txt
http://www.pagina12.com.ar/1998/98-05/98-05-20/pag17.htm
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