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Pandemia

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Current WHO phase of pandemic alert
Current phase of alert in the WHO global influenza preparedness plan
Pandemic preparedness


In the 2009 revision of the phase descriptions, WHO has retained the use of a six-phased approach for easy incorporation of new recommendations and approaches into existing national preparedness and response plans. The grouping and description of pandemic phases have been revised to make them easier to understand, more precise, and based upon observable phenomena. Phases 1–3 correlate with preparedness, including capacity development and response planning activities, while Phases 4–6 clearly signal the need for response and mitigation efforts. Furthermore, periods after the first pandemic wave are elaborated to facilitate post pandemic recovery activities.

The current WHO phase of pandemic alert is 4.



In nature, influenza viruses circulate continuously among animals, especially birds. Even though such viruses might theoretically develop into pandemic viruses, in Phase 1 no viruses circulating among animals have been reported to cause infections in humans.

In Phase 2 an animal influenza virus circulating among domesticated or wild animals is known to have caused infection in humans, and is therefore considered a potential pandemic threat.

In Phase 3, an animal or human-animal influenza reassortant virus has caused sporadic cases or small clusters of disease in people, but has not resulted in human-to-human transmission sufficient to sustain community-level outbreaks. Limited human-to-human transmission may occur under some circumstances, for example, when there is close contact between an infected person and an unprotected caregiver. However, limited transmission under such restricted circumstances does not indicate that the virus has gained the level of transmissibility among humans necessary to cause a pandemic.

Phase 4 is characterized by verified human-to-human transmission of an animal or human-animal influenza reassortant virus able to cause “community-level outbreaks.” The ability to cause sustained disease outbreaks in a community marks a significant upwards shift in the risk for a pandemic. Any country that suspects or has verified such an event should urgently consult with WHO so that the situation can be jointly assessed and a decision made by the affected country if implementation of a rapid pandemic containment operation is warranted. Phase 4 indicates a significant increase in risk of a pandemic but does not necessarily mean that a pandemic is a forgone conclusion.

Phase 5 is characterized by human-to-human spread of the virus into at least two countries in one WHO region. While most countries will not be affected at this stage, the declaration of Phase 5 is a strong signal that a pandemic is imminent and that the time to finalize the organization, communication, and implementation of the planned mitigation measures is short.

Phase 6, the pandemic phase, is characterized by community level outbreaks in at least one other country in a different WHO region in addition to the criteria defined in Phase 5. Designation of this phase will indicate that a global pandemic is under way.

During the post-peak period, pandemic disease levels in most countries with adequate surveillance will have dropped below peak observed levels. The post-peak period signifies that pandemic activity appears to be decreasing; however, it is uncertain if additional waves will occur and countries will need to be prepared for a second wave.

Previous pandemics have been characterized by waves of activity spread over months. Once the level of disease activity drops, a critical communications task will be to balance this information with the possibility of another wave. Pandemic waves can be separated by months and an immediate “at-ease” signal may be premature.

In the post-pandemic period, influenza disease activity will have returned to levels normally seen for seasonal influenza. It is expected that the pandemic virus will behave as a seasonal influenza A virus. At this stage, it is important to maintain surveillance and update pandemic preparedness and response plans accordingly. An intensive phase of recovery and evaluation may be required.

al español


OMS actual fase de alerta pandémica

Current phase of alert in the WHO global influenza preparedness plan Actual fase de alerta en el global de la OMS plan de preparación para la gripe
Pandemic preparedness Preparación para la pandemia

In the 2009 revision of the phase descriptions, WHO has retained the use of a six-phased approach for easy incorporation of new recommendations and approaches into existing national preparedness and response plans. En el 2009 la fase de revisión de las descripciones, la OMS ha mantenido el uso de seis fases para facilitar la incorporación de las nuevas recomendaciones y enfoques nacionales existentes en planes de preparación y respuesta. The grouping and description of pandemic phases have been revised to make them easier to understand, more precise, and based upon observable phenomena. La agrupación y la descripción de las fases de la pandemia han sido revisadas para que sean más fáciles de entender, más preciso, y basándose en los fenómenos observables. Phases 1–3 correlate with preparedness, including capacity development and response planning activities, while Phases 4–6 clearly signal the need for response and mitigation efforts. 1a-3ra correlacionan con las fases de preparación, incluyendo el desarrollo de la capacidad de respuesta y planificación de actividades, mientras que las fases 4a-6a claramente la necesidad de una señal de respuesta y los esfuerzos de mitigación. Furthermore, periods after the first pandemic wave are elaborated to facilitate post pandemic recovery activities. Además, los períodos después de la primera ola pandémica se elaboran para facilitar las actividades de recuperación posteriores pandemia.

The current WHO phase of pandemic alert is 4 . La actual fase de la OMS de alerta pandémica 4.

In nature, influenza viruses circulate continuously among animals, especially birds. En la naturaleza, los virus de la gripe circulan continuamente entre los animales, especialmente aves. Even though such viruses might theoretically develop into pandemic viruses, in Phase 1 no viruses circulating among animals have been reported to cause infections in humans. Aunque teóricamente este tipo de virus podría convertirse en pandemia de virus, en la Fase 1, no los virus que circulan entre los animales se han reportado a causa de infecciones en los seres humanos.

In Phase 2 an animal influenza virus circulating among domesticated or wild animals is known to have caused infection in humans, and is therefore considered a potential pandemic threat. En la fase 2 de un animal del virus de la influenza que circula entre los animales silvestres o domesticados se sabe que han causado infección en los seres humanos, y por lo tanto es considerado un potencial amenaza de una pandemia.

In Phase 3 , an animal or human-animal influenza reassortant virus has caused sporadic cases or small clusters of disease in people, but has not resulted in human-to-human transmission sufficient to sustain community-level outbreaks. En la fase 3, un animal o humano-animales reassortant el virus de la gripe ha causado casos esporádicos o pequeños grupos de enfermedades en las personas, pero no ha dado lugar a seres humanos suficientes para mantener la transmisión a nivel de la comunidad brotes. Limited human-to-human transmission may occur under some circumstances, for example, when there is close contact between an infected person and an unprotected caregiver. Limitada de persona a persona puede ocurrir la transmisión en algunas circunstancias, por ejemplo, cuando hay un contacto estrecho entre una persona infectada sin protección y un cuidador. However, limited transmission under such restricted circumstances does not indicate that the virus has gained the level of transmissibility among humans necessary to cause a pandemic. Sin embargo, la escasez de transmisión restringida en virtud de tales circunstancias no se indica que el virus ha adquirido el nivel de transmisibilidad entre los seres humanos es necesario para causar una pandemia.

Phase 4 is characterized by verified human-to-human transmission of an animal or human-animal influenza reassortant virus able to cause “community-level outbreaks.” The ability to cause sustained disease outbreaks in a community marks a significant upwards shift in the risk for a pandemic. Fase 4 se caracteriza por verificado entre seres humanos de transmisión de un animal o humano-animales reassortant el virus de la gripe capaz de causar "los brotes a nivel de la comunidad." La capacidad de causar brotes de enfermedades sostenido en una comunidad representa un importante cambio al alza en el riesgo para una pandemia. Any country that suspects or has verified such an event should urgently consult with WHO so that the situation can be jointly assessed and a decision made by the affected country if implementation of a rapid pandemic containment operation is warranted. Cualquier país que los sospechosos o ha verificado ese caso debe consultar con urgencia con la OMS a fin de que la situación puede ser evaluado en conjunto y una decisión tomada por el país afectado, si la aplicación de una rápida operación de contención de la pandemia se justifica. Phase 4 indicates a significant increase in risk of a pandemic but does not necessarily mean that a pandemic is a forgone conclusion. Fase 4 se indica un aumento significativo en el riesgo de una pandemia, pero no significa necesariamente que una pandemia es una renuncia conclusión.

Phase 5 is characterized by human-to-human spread of the virus into at least two countries in one WHO region. Fase 5 se caracteriza por ser humano a la propagación del virus en al menos dos países de una región de la OMS. While most countries will not be affected at this stage, the declaration of Phase 5 is a strong signal that a pandemic is imminent and that the time to finalize the organization, communication, and implementation of the planned mitigation measures is short. Si bien la mayoría de los países no se verán afectados en esta etapa, la declaración de la Fase 5 es una señal inequívoca de que una pandemia es inminente y que el tiempo para finalizar la organización, comunicación y ejecución de las medidas de mitigación es corta.

Phase 6 , the pandemic phase, is characterized by community level outbreaks in at least one other country in a different WHO region in addition to the criteria defined in Phase 5 . Fase 6, la fase de pandemia, se caracteriza por brotes de la comunidad en al menos otro país en otra región de la OMS, además de los criterios definidos en la Fase 5. Designation of this phase will indicate that a global pandemic is under way. Designación de esta fase, se indicará que una pandemia mundial está en marcha.

During the post-peak period , pandemic disease levels in most countries with adequate surveillance will have dropped below peak observed levels. Durante el período post-pico, los niveles de pandemia de la enfermedad en la mayoría de los países con una adecuada vigilancia se han caído por debajo del pico de los niveles observados. The post-peak period signifies that pandemic activity appears to be decreasing; however, it is uncertain if additional waves will occur and countries will need to be prepared for a second wave. El período máximo después de la pandemia que significa la actividad parece estar disminuyendo, sin embargo, no se sabe si se producirán más olas y los países tendrán que estar preparados para una segunda oleada.

Previous pandemics have been characterized by waves of activity spread over months. Pandemias anteriores se han caracterizado por olas de actividad a lo largo meses. Once the level of disease activity drops, a critical communications task will be to balance this information with the possibility of another wave. Una vez que el nivel de actividad de la enfermedad gotas, una tarea fundamental de comunicaciones será el equilibrio de esta información con la posibilidad de que otra ola. Pandemic waves can be separated by months and an immediate “at-ease” signal may be premature. Pandemia de ondas se pueden separar por meses y de forma inmediata "en la facilidad" señal puede ser prematura.

In the post-pandemic period , influenza disease activity will have returned to levels normally seen for seasonal influenza. En el período posterior a la pandemia, la gripe la actividad de la enfermedad se han vuelto a los niveles vistos normalmente para la gripe estacional. It is expected that the pandemic virus will behave as a seasonal influenza A virus. Se espera que la pandemia del virus se comportan como un virus de la gripe estacional. At this stage, it is important to maintain surveillance and update pandemic preparedness and response plans accordingly. En esta etapa, es importante mantener la vigilancia y la preparación y actualización de los planes de respuesta en consecuencia. An intensive phase of recovery and evaluation may be required. Una intensa fase de recuperación y la evaluación puede ser necesaria.

fuente:
http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/phase/en/index.html
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